Applications

Intrinsic Fluorescence Imaging

Application 1:

Protein intrinsic Fluorescence for Crystal Detection or distinguishing Protein Crystals from Salt Crystals

Example 1: Protein crystals among ammonium sulfate crystals

Ammonium sulfate crystals illuminated with white light (left) and UV-light (right). The crystal structure of ammonium sulfate is orthorhombic and therefore it shows a distinct birefringence when illuminated with polarized white light. Whereas, when those crystals are illuminated with UV-light they become invisible, they completely merged with the background.

Example 2: Pure salt crystals:

Crystals of ammonium sulfate

Example 3: Crystal screening results:

A: Protein crystals (Diameter ~0.2 mm)

B: Protein crystals (Diameter ~0.1 mm)

C: Protein crystal in oily phase (Diameter ~0.3 mm)

Application 2: RNA and Aptamer Identidication applying the Nucleic Acid specific Dye "SYBR-GOLD":

Example 1: Distinguishing RNA from Salt:

In this example, an RNA-hexamer was crystallized with sodium cacodylate as precipitant. Later, under white light illumination two crystals (A, B) became visible in the drop (left). After addition of SYBER-GOLD to the drop and illumination with UV-light, crystal "A" could be identified as a salt crystal (sodium cacodylate) and crystal "B" as crystals of the RNA-hexamer. 

Example 2: Aptamer-RNA Complex Identification:

Identification of included RNA inside of an Apdamer: White light illumination showed a crystal after screening. In UV-light, the crystal showed intrinsic blue fluorescence and therefore it could be identified as proteinogenic. After addition of SYBR-GOLD to the drop and illumination again with UV-light, the crystal showed green fluorescence, indicating incorporated RNA in the crystal.

In situ Dynamic Light Scattering

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Dynamic Light Scattering

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Particle Size Distribution

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Membrane Proteins

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