Applications

Intrinsic Fluorescence Imaging

Application 1:

Protein intrinsic Fluorescence for Crystal Detection or distinguishing Protein Crystals from Salt Crystals

Example 1: Protein crystals among ammonium sulfate crystals

Ammonium sulfate crystals illuminated with white light (left) and UV-light (right). The crystal structure of ammonium sulfate is orthorhombic and therefore it shows a distinct birefringence when illuminated with polarized white light. Whereas, when those crystals are illuminated with UV-light they become invisible, they completely merged with the background.

Example 2: Pure salt crystals:

Crystals of ammonium sulfate

Example 3: Crystal screening results:

A: Protein crystals (Diameter ~0.2 mm)

B: Protein crystals (Diameter ~0.1 mm)

C: Protein crystal in oily phase (Diameter ~0.3 mm)

Application 2: RNA and Aptamer Identidication applying the Nucleic Acid specific Dye "SYBR-GOLD":

Example 1: Distinguishing RNA from Salt:

In this example, an RNA-hexamer was crystallized with sodium cacodylate as precipitant. Later, under white light illumination two crystals (A, B) became visible in the drop (left). After addition of SYBER-GOLD to the drop and illumination with UV-light, crystal "A" could be identified as a salt crystal (sodium cacodylate) and crystal "B" as crystals of the RNA-hexamer. 

Example 2: Aptamer-RNA Complex Identification:

Identification of included RNA inside of an Apdamer: White light illumination showed a crystal after screening. In UV-light, the crystal showed intrinsic blue fluorescence and therefore it could be identified as proteinogenic. After addition of SYBR-GOLD to the drop and illumination again with UV-light, the crystal showed green fluorescence, indicating incorporated RNA in the crystal.

In situ Dynamic Light Scattering

In Situ DLS Applications

Dynamic Light Scattering

a)

Monodisperse sample

b)

Highly oligomerized sample

c)

Partially aggregated sample